Native Trees & Shrubs of Florida
Native Trees & Shrubs -
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- Rivina humilis
Family - Petiveriaceae
Habitat - Hammocks, ruderal
Description - Native
Florida shrub to near 6
feet, with only the very base being somewhat woody in nature. Leaves are
alternate with distinctly wavy margins.
Flower - Clusters of pinkish-white
flowers on spikes throughout the year, followed by the bright red berries.
Shiny-leaved Wild Coffee
- Psychotria nervosa
Habitat - Common
in moist areas of coastal, oak and hardwood hammocks. Endemic to Florida within
the continental U.S.
Native shrub, 4 - 10 feet in height with elliptical to narrowly obovate dark green shiny leaves, 4 - 6
inches long with veins impressed into upper surface.
flower in clusters produced at leaf axils, fruit is 3/8 inch red
or yellow berry that closely resembles the true coffee
Velvet-leafed wild coffee
- Psychotria sulzneri
Habitat - Wet to
moist Hammocks, Flatwoods
Native Florida shrub to 8 feet tall, stems green to reddish-brown, leaves are
opposite, 4-7 inches long, oblanceolate with entire margins and blue-green
color. Clusters of small white flowers, fruit is a small red berry (drupe) 1/4
inch in diameter.
Appalachian tea - Ilex glabra
Moist to wet Flatwoods, Sand scrub, Hammocks, Bogs and Swamps
Native perennial shrub, 4 - 6 feet tall, the leathery leaves are 1 1/2 to 3
1/2 inches long, simple, alternately arranged with smooth or finely toothed
margin, obovate to elliptic.
Flower is greenish white, single at
leaf axils followed by round 1/4 inch shiny black fruits that
persist through winter.
are browsed by Marsh rabbits and White tailed-deer, the fruits
are an important food source for Raccoon, Coyote, Opossum and
many birds, including Quail and Wild turkey, especially when other food sources
- Vaccinium myrsinites
Native shrub, 1-2 feet high, spreads from
rhizomes. Leaves alternate, obovate to elliptic, leathery, 1/4 to 3/4 inches long
with entire or finely serrate margins.
Flower - Small urn shaped, pink to white in spring 1/4 inch +/-.
Fruit is a small red to black drupe.
Sandhill Rosemary - Ceratiola ericoides
Family - Empetraceae
Sandhill, Sand Pine Scrub, Oak Scrub
Perennial, Subshrub, Shrub, Forb/Herb, up to 6 feet in height
with many stiffly erect stems. Leaf 1/2 inch, needle-like,
opposite to whorled. Older individuals often have larger
branches laying on ground.
Flower - Tiny,
bronze to yellowish-brown, produced in clusters at leaf axils.
Sabal Palm, Cabbage Palm
- Sabal Palmetto
Coastal forests, hardwood hammocks, moist to wet flatwoods,
river floodplains, river and creek banks.
Native. This tall (90 plus ft.) hardy palm is the Florida state tree.
Leaves (fronds) are attached to the
tree on long petioles which clasp the trunk, overall length
can exceed 10 feet. Dead fronds persist on tree until a strong
wind snaps the stalk or they gradually deteriorate leaving
behind the "boot", the forked base of the leaf stem.
yellowish-white on many branched inflorescence produced
at the crown, followed by reddish-brown round berries a 1/2 inch or less in diameter
that turn black when mature.
Many birds dine on the
berries of the cabbage palm, as do small mammals. Bees
and wasps are constantly at the
- Cocos nucifera
Family - Arecaceae
Habitat - Coastal strand,
riverbanks, cultivated worldwide.
Description - Not
native, introduced. Although widely believed to have originated in S. America,
the actual origin of the coconut has
long been a subject of dispute. Many varieties have been developed, including dwarfs. Grows to
over 80 feet high with its leaves reaching 18 to 19 feet in length. The coconut
palm has long been used as a source of fiber, food, nut oil and
Flower - Inflorescence is enclosed in a spathe to near 6 feet in length with profuse creamy yellow to orange flowers.
- Serenoa repens
Habitat - Pine
flatwoods, pine scrub, oak scrub, oak hammocks, maritime
Description - Native. Palmate leaves up to 3 ft. in width growing from
horizontal stems and rhizomes, overall height is variable dependant on the type
of habitat, common at 2 to 10 feet and can attain heights over 20 feet.
stems are edged with sharp spines resembling saw teeth give this native plant its common
Fragrant flowers are yellowish-white on densely-branched inflorescences 2 feet or
more in length.
Fruit is green to yellowish, changing to orange then darkening to a deep
purple/black when ripe and provides forage for many animals including Whitetail
deer, Black bear, feral pigs and the Gopher tortoise.
Beach-creeper, Golden-creeper, Coughbush
- Ernodea littoralis
Family - Rubiaceae
Habitat - Coastal areas - Dunes and scrub in central and south Florida.
Description - Low growing (less than 3 feet) sprawling native shrub, stems root where
they make contact with the ground. Leaves are linear to lanceolate, opposite,
shiny green to yellowish-green 1 inch to 1 1/2 inches long.
Flower - Small (1/2 inch) tubular flowers with 4 re-curving petals, may be white
to pinkish or yellowish-white, produced year-round. Fruit is a single seeded, yellow berry.
Native Trees & Shrubs -